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ATPM 12.08
August 2006



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Web Accessibility

by Miraz Jordan,

Sandvox: Sand in the Eyes

Last month, I wrote about iWeb and how it gets in the way of creating a good Web site. Over the next few months, I want to see if any of the other popular applications does a better job. I set out to create a simple one-page document with a little text, some headings, a list, a couple of links, and a photo.

My Assumptions

In these articles, I assume the user of the software is creating a couple of fairly straightforward text-based Web pages with a few images—appropriate for a brochure site for a small business or community group.

I also assume the user isn’t a professional Web designer with a deep knowledge of HTML, but I do assume she has a sufficient level of understanding about Web pages to choose suitable commands from menus or toolbars.

Nine Fundamentals

A good Web site has relevant content and is written in plain language, with plenty of headings, useful page titles, clear navigation, alternate text for graphics, and meaningful text links. For maximum benefit, the coding meets modern standards and is valid.

If every Web site were to incorporate these features, the Web would be a much friendlier place. These nine targets aren’t hard to hit, but it’s up to the software we use to make it possible, even easy, for us to hit them.

What Software Can Do

The human author needs to select the content, organize the structure, and write plainly, but it’s up to the software to make it easy to apply page titles and headings, to add useful alternate text, and to edit link text. The software should automatically apply appropriate coding and offer an easy way to check validity.

It would also be useful if the software were able to provide some on-demand assessments of the clarity of the language, the quality of the link and alternate text, and the existence of headings. I don’t know whether any current tool offers these options.


The regular version of Sandvox is $49, while the Pro version offers extra features for $79. A free demo is available. Mac OS X 10.4.4 is required.

The Process

Without reading the manual, I started up the demo version of Sandvox 1.0.3 and chose the first offered theme for my new page. I entered some text on the default page. Then I tried to add a link or two and a photo, and to format my text a bit: a few headings, some emphasized text, and a list.

The Interface

It was easy to add links, although it’s a definite no-no these days to open a link (without warning) into a new window. Sandvox gives you a check box for opening a link into a new window right when you create the link.

The photo was a bit trickier because the media browser showed only iPhoto and my Pictures folder, while the photo I wanted was in a separate folder. I was able to drag the photo in from the Finder and use the Inspector to add alternate text, wrongly called a Description.

Next I set out to:

  • turn the headings from ordinary text into heading text
  • mark up three lines of text as a numbered list
  • emphasize a few words

These common tasks proved to be a problem.


Real headings on a Web page aren’t just big and bold text, but are marked up with <h> tags. I looked all over the interface for something that would let me apply a level three heading, even referring to the wiki documentation and the quickstart PDF. My only options appeared to be to make the text bold and/or to increase the font size. I put this task on hold temporarily.


Next I tried to make three lines of text into a list, with or without numbers. Again, I could see no way at all to do this. Another task on hold.


Sighted visitors looking at a Web page see bold and may leap to the conclusion that bold means words are emphasized. Blind visitors and software such as search engines don’t understand bold as emphasis, though. The correct markup is to use either the <strong> tag or the <em> tag.

Something such as a book title could be marked up as bold, because there it’s simply a visual aid—the title could equally well appear in a different font or color.

I had a few words to emphasize. I selected them and reluctantly chose Bold from the Format menu, since there was no other option available.

The Code View

Having failed in two of my three formatting tasks, I went looking to see how Sandvox had marked up my page. For this I used the View‣Web View‣HTML Source menu item.

Accessibility generally refers to the experience visitors have with a rendered Web page, but the tool used to create Web pages should itself be accessible. The HTML source of my Web page was an undifferentiated mass of tiny black text. Many tools use syntax coloring—they make tags blue, for example, while text may be black and perhaps attributes are red. Sandvox’s HTML source was impossible for me to read. It was also not possible to edit the HTML directly.

Unfortunately, I could find no way to enlarge the source text. The standard Command-+ keyboard command switched me back to the Web View, while commands such as View‣Make Text Bigger silently failed. I pasted the text into my trusty text editor and enlarged it there.

The Coding

The document I created used modern XHTML coding and passed the validation test with no errors. That only proves that validation tests if code is syntactically correct, not whether a page has been well put together.

Because I had found no way to create headings or lists, those aspects of my page were deficient. The page did not reflect my writing intentions and did not communicate effectively. I could have marked up the headings as bold, but as I’ve written before, bold does not equal heading on a Web page.

The text I had wanted to emphasize had indeed been marked up with a <b> tag, rather than the <strong> or <em> that was appropriate. The only real use for bold as a menu item these days is to create a <strong> tag.

My Conclusions

Sandvox is lacking in some of the simplest and most fundamental functions for making accessible Web pages. I should be able to easily apply heading and list formatting to my text; I should be able to choose <strong> rather than bold.

And that’s just the basics. There are plenty more intermediate and advanced tasks that Sandvox seems to have no capacity for, such as adding title attributes to links.

Like iWeb, this software may be useful for creating pretty pages for friends and family to view. It’s not up to the task of creating the kind of Web pages a small business or community group needs.

Useful Links

Related Articles

Also in This Series

Reader Comments (6)

Michael Tsai (ATPM Staff) · August 1, 2006 - 11:27 EST #1
I agree with Miraz that Sandvox’s HTML is not very accessible, but I do think it’s better in some ways than the HTML generated by iWeb. For example, Sandvox does use <h> tags for the headers it auto-generates (just not for the ones you type yourself). And it uses <i> and <b> tags for italic and bold text, whereas iWeb uses CSS like <span style="font-weight: bold; line-height: 17px; ">. The Sandvox code will degrade a bit better for text-only browsers or browsers not using CSS.
Tom · August 24, 2006 - 08:30 EST #2
I am considering using Sanvox to sell my art, show small movies of my works and to sell items of interest in and from Japan. I have a verified account with PayPal, and would like to insert their buttons for my pieces I wish to sell. PayPal offers html code to insert and it seems pretty straight forward. Sandvox writes that you need some knowledge to do this. I have done simple HTML before and worked with meta tags and descriptins and font size and color etc.

Below is what they wrote in FAQ (To be honest with you, having a Mac is great, but to publish to sell is hell! Nice site building software is always windows based!) Tom

Can Sandvox support e-commerce, dynamic content, etc.?

Sandvox generates static content, so e-commerce and dynamic content are only available by using the custom HTML pages and pagelets (Pro version only). However, you can put server-side scripting constructs like PHP in your custom HTML pages and pagelets if you're familiar with these constructs and if your ISP supports them. Additionally, you can insert custom <head> elements and pre-content preludes (useful for setting cookies or authentication).

I hope you can send me your honest opinion before I buy this product. Tom
Miraz Jordan · August 24, 2006 - 18:13 EST #3
Well, my honest opinion is in the article above.

I suggest you download the demo and try it out, and try out some others too, such as RapidWeaver before making a final decision.

Of course, you should also keep reading the next issues as this is turning into something of a series. I look at a few more applications for their accessibility features in the next few issues.
RexGranite · December 11, 2006 - 22:49 EST #4
I wanted to try the trial of Sandvox and I could not even get the Karelia site to open. Not very reassuring to a potential customer of a website design application when the manufacturer's site won't even load.
Jason Payne · December 2, 2007 - 18:16 EST #5
I have been using Sandvox for a while now and it does what I need it to do. I am in google search engines and all. You can check out my current Sandvox site @
noel jones · January 12, 2008 - 14:42 EST #6
I have used Dreamweaver for three years, but found that it failed to help me when doing a quick site I was in the market for something easier to use.

Sandvox DOES have limitations, but for quick and reliable design it works VERY well. iWeb is what got me interested, as I liked it, but found uploading to be a pain from it to my sites. Because I am used to Dreamweaver and HTML programs it does take some out of the box thinking to understand this program, but overall I am very pleased with the results....especially because the pages load and work so well.

Thank you for this group, and the opportunity to post!

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